U uvjetima nestabilnog tržišta podložnog mnogobrojnim vanjskim utjecajima za poljoprivredne proizvođače osobito je važno da osiguraju diversificirane izvore prihoda kako bi mogli osigurati nesmetano odvijanje rada gospodarstva. Oblika diversifikacije poljoprivrednih gospodarstava ima više, a fokus u ovom istraživanju je na diversifikaciju u turizmu na primjeru gospodarstava koji se bave maslinarskom proizvodnjom i proizvodnjom ulja, a otvoreni su za posjetitelje odnosno pružaju turističke usluge na svojim gospodarstvima. Ovakav oblik turizma poznat je pod nazivom maslinarski turizam.
Pri prikupljanju podataka korišten je proces triangulacije odnosno podaci su prikupljani putem kvalitativne i kvantitativne metode. Proces prikupljanja podataka započeo je na proljeće 2019. godine provedbom intervjua na uzorku 9 posjetitelja maslinarskih gospodarstava u Istarskoj županiji. Za provedbu intervjua korišten je podsjetnik za intervju putem kojeg su ispitanici pitani o njihovim motivima posjete, doživljajnim doživljajima na gospodarstvu, kao i o njihovim budućim namjerama prema gospodarstvu. Nakon toga podaci su prikupljani metodom ankete, a pitanja u upitniku temeljila su se na varijablama Teorije planiranog ponašanja (stav, subjektivna norma i percipirana kontrola ponašanja) dodatno proširene motivima i doživljajima, te pitanja o socio-demografskim osobinama i osobinama putovanja koja su bila postavljena u posljednjim dijelu upitnika. Proces prikupljanja upitnika odvijao se na 6 maslinarskih gospodarstva i to 3 uljare i 3 gospodarstva, a trajao je od lipnja do listopada 2019. godine pri čemu je prikupljeno ukupno 263 pravovaljana upitnika. Prikupljeni podaci analizirani su univarijatnom statistikom kako bi se opisao uzorak, zatim putem klaster analize segmentirani su posjetitelji prema motivima posjete, dok međuodnos varijabli provjeren je postupkom modeliranja strukturnih jednadžbi (SEM).
Prosječni posjetitelj maslinarskih gospodarstava je ženska osoba, starija od 57 godina, zaposlena, s višim primanjima, fakultetski obrazovana, uglavnom je riječ o turistima, koji su smješteni u hotelima, u destinaciji borave 5 i više dana, a ovo im nije prva posjeta Istri, već su je ranije posjetili, te pretežito dolaze iz zemalja srednje i sjeverne Europe, odnosno iz zemalja koje nemaju pedoklimatskih mogućnosti uzgoja maslina i proizvodnje ulja. Najviše ocjenjeni motiv posjete gospodarstvima je kušanje maslinova ulja, dok statistički značajni motivi prema stavu prema ponovnoj posjeti jesu motivi opuštanja i privlačnost krajolika, dok motiv opuštanja je značajan i prema namjeri ponovne posjete. Posjetitelji najviše vrednuju doživljaj učenja, dok statistički značajni prema stavu o ponovnoj posjeti i namjeri ponovne posjete pokazali su se doživljaji estetike i zabave. Svi konstrukti Teorije planiranog ponašanja statistički su značajni prema namjeri ponovne posjete gospodarstvima. Usporedbom Teorije u originalu i proširene Teorije planiranog ponašanja potvrđeno je da proširenja Teorije nešto bolje previđa namjeru ponovne posjete.
Nositelji gospodarstava trebali bi svojim posjetiteljima pružati doživljaje zabave i estetike kao i motive opuštanja kako bi osigurali održivost svoje diversificirane djelatnosti u vidu ponovljenih posjeta kao oblika lojalnosti.
The research idea for this doctoral thesis stemmed from a desire to explore new phenomena, such as Olive tourism. In research terms, Olive tourism is just at its infancy, merely attracting attention it merits, and the available research is based chiefly on qualitative research processes and secondary data sources. A handful of research is based on quantitative approach. Olive tourism posits, in fact, a link between olive growing, olive oil production, and tourism. In many Mediterranean countries, olive growing is regarded not only for its obvious agricultural value, but it is also rooted in tradition. On the other hand, tourism in the Mediterranean represents an important economic sector for most economies. Olive tourism provides a favourable basis for diversifying olive-producing homesteads in tourism, as well as an additional attraction to a given destination. Provided the scarce research on the subject so far, particularly so in Croatia, this was the leading reason to opt for the research idea.
The planned surveys set objectives, that is, to identify the profile of visitors to olive farms, to identify the motives for visiting and experiences at farms, and to determine whether the extended Theory of planned behavior (hereinafter TPB) predicts a greater intention to revisit the farms. TBP is one of the commonly used theories of predicting human behaviour. The theory consists of three constructs, namely that of Attitude, Subjective Norm (hereinafter SN) and Perceived Behavioral Control (hereinafter PBC). Very often, it is used in marketing studies to predict intent or behaviour, and new variables are often added to increase the predictive power of TPB itself.
In order to respond to set objectives, it was necessary to collect data from multiple sources. Therefore, the initial planning of the research started with literature review, or in different terms, surveying secondary data sources. As for the primary research process, it relied on a triangulation methodology using methodological triangulation featuring the use of qualitative and quantitative research.
Data collection started with a qualitative approach, that is by interviewing visitors to olive farms. Data were collected between May and June 2019 at the site of two olive farms, one oil mill and one family farm in the Istria area. A total of 9 semi-structured interviews were conducted by means of a reminder of the interview, which focused the interview on the motives for visiting a farm, the experiences at the farm, and the future intentions towards the farm, as well as the characteristics of the visitor. Interviews were recorded and notes were taken during the interview, which were later transcribed and selected for keywords. The results obtained from the interview served as the basis for the creation of a set of statements of motivation in the questionnaire. Researching motives was based on a push-and-pull approach, which includes the visitors’ internal motifs, as well as motives due to the offer at the destination and family farms. The questionnaire also included a set of questions on the experience at a family farm, based on the economy of experience, whereby perceptions were viewed in four dimensions: learning, aesthetics, entertainment, escape. An array of statements on perceptions was taken from cited literature. The central part of the questionnaire included TPB variables. The statements of TBP variables were also based on the literature. Moreover, the last part of the questionnaire consisted of questions relating to socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents and their behaviour when travelling. Collecting data by means of a questionnaire
on a sample of visitors took place between June and October 2019 within the limits of Istria County, or more specifically, at the site of six olive farms, three of which were oil mills and remaining 3 farms. The surveyors approached visitors following their visit and asked them to participate in the survey. A total of 263 valid questionnaires were collected.
The data collection process was followed by the task of data processing. The sample is described by frequency. The differences between the motives for visit were identified through analysis clusters, while the impact of variables on the intention to revisit a given family farm was verified through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM).
The average visitor to olive farms is a woman, having a university degree, employed and over 57 years of age with higher monthly incomes. They stay as tourists at the destination, organise their travel in person, book hotels, had previously visited their destination, and mainly come from countries not associated with olive oil production.
The leading motive for farm visits is tasting olive oil; 2 clusters were identified with regards to the motives for visit, including Participating and Passive visitors. The participating visitors appreciate the motives for visit more than passive ones. Furthermore, differences in various socio-demographic features and the characteristics of travel between the two clusters have been identified. During implementation of SEM, a push-motive factor, namely “leisure”, as well as a pull-motive factor, namely “environment”, were identified. The push-motive factor had an impact on both the revisit attitude and the intention to revisit, while the pull-motive factor pull influenced only the revisit attitude
Visitors appreciated their learning experience most. Further to this, statistical significance of the attitude to revisit and the intention to visit again was yielded by aesthetics and entertainment. The perception of aesthetics is, according to literature, a key perception in rural tourism, in addition to the experience of entertainment being the oldest experience associated with tourism.
All TPB variables showed a significant impact on the intention to revisit. PBC has been found to be most impactful, indicating that visitors have sufficient resources and are willing to revisit the family farm.
The comparison of TPB in the original and extended TPB with the motive and experience variables increases its predictive power over the theory in the original. Additional variables of motives and experience were carefully selected to predict the intention of revisit better. These are one of the key variables in tourism and have also proved important when it comes to predicting intentions by tourists and visitors. It is important that farm operators meet the motives of their visitors and provide a comfortably designed facility for their visitors. The role of environment, such as the landscape of olives groves, which drives visitors to visit the farm, is also valuable.
The findings of this study contribute to enriching scientific literature and provide scientific input in number of respects. The extension of TPB with motive and experience variables anticipates better the intention to revisit olive farms. It provides a good basis for upgrading the proposed extended model with additional variables to further increase the predictive power of the model.
It should also be stressed that practical contribution was made by performing the study, reflected in the identification of motives and experience, and the behaviour of visitors to olive
farms. Thus, it proves valuable in the planning of marketing strategies that ought to allow a better and more successful diversification of family-run homesteads in the tourism sector, as well as impose important implications for the development of tourism offer at a destination.