Kraljevina, autohtoni kultivar Prigorja na područje Svetog Ivana Zeline. ima dugu tradiciju uzgoja, međutim uočena je velika varijabilnost biotipova unutar populacije. Upravo zbog sve većeg interesa za uzgojem Kraljevine kao i nepostojanje matičnih (selekcioniranih) nasada upućivali su na potrebu klonske selekcije. U postupku selekcije klonova uz osnovne pokazatelje rodnosti i kvalitete grožđa potrebno je istražiti i razinu varijabilnosti klonskih kandidata u sintezi pojedinih grupa kemijskih spojeva (hlapivi aromatski spojevi, polifenolni spojevi, aminokiseline, pojedinačne organske kiseline) koji sudjeluju u formiranju senzornih svojstava vina te definiraju njegovu kvalitetu. Cilj ovog istraživanja bio je utvrditi osnovni kemijski sastav te udio pojedinačnih organskih kiselina, aminokiselina i aromatskih spojeva u moštu i vinima klonskih kandidata kultivara Kraljevine kao i utjecaj soja kvasca na osnovni kemijski sastav, te udio pojedinačnih organskih kiselina, aminokiselina i aromatskih spojeva, te sastav polifenolnih spojeva u vinima klonskih kandidata kultivara Kraljevine. Uz to cilj je bio i definirati senzorna svojstva vina klonskih kandidata kultivara Kraljevina. Dvogodišnje istraživanje 9 klonskih kandidata (VV-438, VV-406,VV-479,VV-486,VV-483,VV-423,VV-360, VV-434,VV-482) provedeno je u moštu i vinu dobivenom od grožđa iz pokusnih vinograda smještenih u Svetom Ivanu Zelini. Tretmani u istraživanju bili su tretman A: vinifikacija korištenjem komercijalnog soja kvasca Anchor VIN13, i tretman B: vinifikacija korištenjem komercijalnog soja kvasca Uvaferm Affinity. Kemijska analiza mošta i vina obuhvatila je određivanje koncentracije šećera refraktometrijski, ukupnu kiselost titracijskom metodom prema O.I.V.-u, pH vrijednost te određivanje pojedinačnih organskih kiselina te aminokiselina tekućinskom kromatografijom visoke djelotvornosti (HPLC). U uzorcima vina provedena je osnovna fizikalno-kemijska analiza vina prema metodama O.I.V., pojedinačni polifenoli analizirani su primjenom tekućinske kromatografije visoke djelotvornosti (HPLC) dok se određivanje kvalitativnog i kvantitativnog udjela tvari arome provelo primjenom instrumentalne metode plinske kromatografije (GC). Vina su senzorno ocijenjena metodom 100 bodova. Dobiveni rezultati istraživanja ukazali su na značajnu različitost ispitivanih klonskih kandidata pri čemu je klonski kandidat VV-360 u obje godine istraživanja imao najveću koncentraciju nakupljenog šećera kao i koncentraciju pojedinačnih aminokiselina dok se kao klonski kandidat sa najmanjim potencijalom nakupljanja šećera ali i najvećom ukupnom kiselošću nametnuo klonski kandidat VV-479. Po aminokiselinskom profilu 9 istraživanih klonskih kandidata možemo svrstati u tri grupe i to VV-360 u kojem je dominantna aminokiselina arginin, VV-434 u kojoj dominira glutaminska kiselina te preostalih sedam u kojima se aminokiselinski profil nije značajno razlikovao. Prema koncentracijama pojedinačnih organskih kiselina u grupi klonskih kandidata sa višim sadržajem vinske kiseline možemo izdvojiti VV-483, VV-482 i VV-423 dok se višim sadržajem jabučne kiseline nametnuo klonski kandidat VV-434 koji je zajedno sa klonskim kandidatima VV-479 i VV-486 u obje godine imao i niži pH. Rezultati polifenolnog profila ispitivanih klonskih kandidata također su se značajno razlikovali pri čemu je klonski kandidat VV-479 imao najviše hidroksicimetnih kiselina, VV-438 hidroksibenzojevih kiselina, a klonski kandidat VV-360 izdvojio se većim koncentracijama ukupnih flavanola. Aromatski profil dobivenih vina razlikovao se kako između ispitivanih klonskih kandidata tako i korištenog soja kvasca. Kao najzastupljeniji monoterpen izdvojo se linalol kojega je najviše utvrđeno kod klonskog kandidata VV-438. Po vrijednostima C13-norizoprenoida izdvojio se klonski kandidat VV479 dok je najviše viših alkohola imalo vino od klonskog kandidata VV-486. Pri tome je kod svih klonskih kandidata utvrđen i značajan utjecaj ispitivanih sojeva kvasaca pri čemu je soj Anchor VIN13 utjecao na veću koncentraciju norizoprenoida i monoterpena dok je Uvaferm Affinity stvorio više estera i viših alkohola. Dobiveni rezultati utjecali su i na senzornu ocjenu analiziranih vina pri čemu su se izdvojila vina od klonskih kandidata VV482 i VV-438 oba dobivena primjenom soja kvasca Anchor VIN13.
|Abstract (english)|| |
Kraljevina is an autochthonous grapevine cultivar whose name is closely linked to the area of St. Ivana Zelina. In this area cultivar Kraljevina has a long tradition, however, was observed large variability biotypes within the population. Because of the increasing interest in the cultivation of Kraljevina as well as the lack of selected plantation pointed to the need for the implementation of clonal selection. In the process of selection of clones with basic indicators of fertility and quality of grapes is necessary to investigate the level of variability of clonal candidates in the synthesis of certain groups of chemical compounds (volatile aromatic compounds, polyphenolic compounds, amino acids, individual organic acids) which participate in the formation of the sensory properties of wine and define its quality. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition and content of individual organic acids, amino acids and aromatic compounds in must and wine of clonal candidates cv Kraljevina and the impact of yeast strain on the chemical composition and content of individual organic acids, amino acids and aromatic compounds in wines of Kraljevina clonal candidates. In addition, the aim was to define the sensory characteristics of wines made from clonal candidates cv Kraljevina. In the chapter Overview of previous research data about cultivar Kraljevina and its general characteristic are noted as well as previous research conected with ampelographic description and basic chemical analysis of Kraljevina must and wine. Also the importance of clonal selection and resent achivments conected with this scientifical topic are listed as well as the results dealing with positive clonal selection. Published data about aromatic compounds in must and wine as well as their concentrations, pointed out the influence of wine technology, yeast selection and cultivar as well as selected clone. Stronge difference in the amount of individual chemical compounds from the group of monoterpens and C13 norisoprenoids is defined between Chardonnay selected clones as well as in clones of Kerner, Traminer, Rhine risling. Subchapter about polyphenols is dealing with a large and diverse group of chemical compounds that can strongly influence wine quality. So, determination of possible variability between cultivars and also clonal candidat in the accumulation of this group of compounds is important, the statement that is confirmed with large amount of published scientifical research dealing with this topic. Research wines of different clonal candidates have shown that it can significantly vary in intensity and color tonality as well as in concentration of individual polyphenols. Phenolic composition, antioxidant activity and color diversity was investigated in Concord grape clones from Brazil while in the wines obtained from seven clones Monastrell significant differences in the mineral composition, organic acids and color intensity was noticed. In the chapter Material and methods the course of research and data processing is presented. The two-year study of clonal candidates cv Kraljevina (Vitis vinifera L.) was carried out in the must and wine made from grapes grown in experimental vineyards located in Sveti Ivan Zelina, specifically at the position Puščak and position Krčina. Individual bunches of selected mass positive selection within the "Clonal selection of grapevine, cv. The Kraljevina ", are propagated and planted in both locations. This study was conducted on 9 clonal candidates cv Kraljevina (VV-438, VV-406, VV-479, VV-486, VV-483, VV -423, VV-360, VV-434, VV-482) which are separated due to a sufficient number of vines from which a minimal amount of grapes needed for good mikrovinifikacijskog process of alcoholic fermentation was secured. Grape harvest of each clonal candidate was done by hand, at the time of full maturity. The grapes were harvested in plastic boxes with capacity of 20 kg. After crushing the grapes must was settled for 24 h after which the precipitate was separated and clear must was poured in the four vessels, volume of 10 L per each clone candidate (a total of 36 pots). The alcoholic fermentation was carried out using two different commercial yeast strains, Anchor VIN13 and Uvaferm Affinity. During the alcoholic fermentation degradation of sugar and temperature was regularly monitored. After completion of the alcoholic fermentation samples were taken for analysis of wine and the wine was kept in basement conditions until the time of sensory evaluation that was carried out 6 months after the completion of alcoholic fermentation. Chemical analysis of must involves determining the concentration of sugar, total acidity, the pH value and the determination of individual organic acids and amino acids. In all must samples also the value of free amino acids (FAN) and the concentration of total polyphenols was determined. In wine samples basic chemical analysis was carried on (%vol alcohol, reducing sugar, total extract, total acidity, pH, volatile acidity, ash), as well as organic acid the amino-acids and individual polyphenols and aroma compounds concentrations were done using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). The concentration of total phenolics and free amino acids in the wine was determined by spectrophotometry. All wines were evaluated by organoleptic method of 100 points. In the chapter Results, the main results obtained in the experiment are listed. Research results indicated a significant difference of tested clonal candidates where the clone candidate VV-360 in both years had the highest concentration of accumulated sugar and concentration of individual amino acids. On the contrary the clone candidate VV -479 had the lowest potential for accumulation of sugar but the highest total acidity. According to amino acid profile 9 investigated clonal candidates can be divided into three groups; VV-360 in which the dominant amino acid was arginine, VV-434 dominated by glutamate and the remaining seven in which the amino acid profile was not significantly different. Results of polyphenol profile singled out clone candidate VV-479 who had the most hydroxycinnamic acid, while clone candidat VV-438 was rich in hydroxybenzoic acid and clone candidate VV-360 had the higher concentrations of total flavanols. According to organic acid profile in the group of clonal candidates with a higher content of tartaric acid we can pointed out VV - 483, VV - 482 and VV - 423 while a higher content of malic acid imposed clone candidate VV - 434 which together with the cloning candidate VV - 479 and VV 486, in both year, had a lower pH. Aromatic profile of wines differed as between examined clonal candidates as between used yeast strains. As the most abundant monoterpene was isolated linalool with the highest concentrations noted in clonal candidate VV-438. Higher values of C13-norizoprenoid pointed out clone candidate VV479 while the highest amount of higher alcohols had wine from clonal candidate VV-486. In all clonal candidates significant effect of tested yeast strains was established, in which the strain Anchor VIN13 affect the higher concentration of norizoprenoids and monoterpenes while Uvaferm Affinity created more esters and higher alcohols. Sensory evaluation of the analyzed wines singled out clonal candidates VV-482 and VV-438 both obtained using a yeast strain Anchor VIN13. As previous research comprised mainly of biological characteristics of Kraljevina variety this results strongly contribute to expanding knowledge about the composition of individual organic acids, amino acid, aroma and polyphenol compounds and the potential of isolated clonal candidates cv Kraljevina. For the first time the impact of yeast strains used was defined as well as their influence in the formation of the organoleptic properties of the investigated clonal candidates. The research results achived will also in the future have strong impac in the further evaluation of isolated clonal candidates with the ultimate goal of selection - gaining the first clones of this cultivar. So at the end we can conclude that 9 clonal candidates used in this research distinguished between them primarly according to the possibility of accumulating sugar and individual organic acids but also in the aromatic and polyphenol compounds synthesis. In the future this data together with the confirmation of strong yeast strain impact can assure to the wine producer an easier decision what clone as well as yeast strain to use.